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Hashtag as a popular culture phenomenon

in MY WORK

 

Hashtag-Comic

Until less than a decade ago, the symbol „#“ used to signify only a term related to phones or a sign for „sharp“ in musical notation system. Meanwhile, the perception has changed, and this simple symbol is one of the main tools of communication.This simple „#“ sign is not only a part of social media language, but also a part of everything we consume. It even changes the way the society writes and behaves since grammatically correct forms are no longer necessary today. According to research so far, short messages are 25% more interactive. Therefore, in order to send and receive messages, we do not need to use whole sentences, but only images and hashtag symbols, which confirms the visual effect domination. Nowadays, even the TV channels use hashtag to attract more viewers, widen the audience and distribute information much faster. Speed and simplicity are built in the new „hashtag culture“. Hashtag has developed from a simple social communication into a popular cultural phenomenon in a very short period of time.This trend is only a different way of using the Internet and just another possibility for posting the aimed personal content. It is possible that one day a specific obsession for hashtag as such will disappear, but until then it will continue to grow incredibly fast. The future of communication based on information technology is uncertain, because the possibilities are infinite, and the speed of development is unknown. The things that made hashtag the essential part of communication with audience in modern society are number of hashtags, number of social network users, an easy possibility to create contents that the whole world can access, mobile communication (with 80% of users of Twitter or even Instagram on mobile platforms), TV shows and advertising campaigns. This proves that a thing which started as entertainment became a part of popular culture of the modern society.                 

 

INTRODUCTION

This is the age of social networks such as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram. In the last five years, their popularity has grown so much that people from all branches use them, including Hollywood celebrities, famous musicians, politicians, and writers, who chose social networks as their basic means of communication.

Twitter enables its users to connect to thousands, or even millions of people at a global level, by using short messages with up to 140 characters, increasing the limit to 10,000 characters in the near future, which would change the way of communication on the social network. The world entertainment stage has accepted Twitter as means of presenting opinions and attitudes, thus providing the audience with exclusive news directly from the source. Ashton Kutcher, Oprah Winfrey, US President Barack Obama, and Arnold Schwarzenegger were the first celebrities who started using Twitter for sending quick messages and connecting with their audience. Therefore, Twitter was supported by the world famous singers, actors and presidents, and it became a particular spot for finding information, but also a popular culture phenomenon of with 284 million active users, and 500 million posts a day.[1] The pop-culture adoption of hashtags helped push hashtags into other social networks. Instagram adopted hashtags on January 27, 2011 and Facebook finally adopted hashtags on June 12, 2013.[2] The hashtag brought more than just attention, it gave even a list of people who actually engaged with someone`s story and brand. Hashtags have become more than just a simple way to categorize posts or add a narrative to the story behind.

 

RESEARCH

The purpose of this work is not to research the use of hash character in daily communication and its transformation into information source, which changed the traditional forms of communications. The aim of the research is to analyse the frequency, the way and the occasions in which the character is used and to define the role of hashtag in popular culture.

The object of this research is to understand the use of hashtag character in daily communication, trend setting and creation of popular contents.

Until less than a decade ago, the hash symbol “#” used to signify only a term related to phones or a sign for “sharp” in musical notation system. Meanwhile, the perception has changed, and this simple symbol now represents one of the main tools of communication, which has become a phenomenon of popular culture, online communication is no longer possible without it, and it has also been spreading within communication outside social networks. 

The research of hashtag as popular culture phenomenon and its use in daily communication has included the following:

Primary research:

  • Conversation/interviews with people in Serbia who are followed by a significant number of social network users (more than 5,000), and are therefore responsible for management of online contents of their own or their clients’;
  • Quantitative analysis by tools such as Topsy[3] and Tvitni.me[4] which analyse communication results on Twitter[5] social network with the analysis of hashtag characters and key words;

Secondary research:

  • The review which includes websites research, newspaper articles and blogs related to the use of hashtag character.

 

DIGITAL COMMUNICATION WORLDWIDE AND IN SERBIA

According to Merriam Webster`s Dictionary, social networks are „a kind of electronic communication (websites for social networking and microblogging) through which the users make online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages and other contents (such as videos)” .

Social networks are also defined as virtual, online communities which connect people who might share similar interests or activities, regardless of their location. They are interactive online services which provide pages with basic personal information, contact lists of people users can communicate with and exchange information publicly, for certain public only or in a private communication. As far as the number of users is concerned, the most popular social networks are Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.

In 2015 the most popular social network, Facebook, has reached more than a billion users in the world, 3.4 million of which are in Serbia. The next one is Twitter, which is classified as a part of microblogs subgroup, but definitely a social network, since the communication on Twitter has become very interactive and is often in a form of a dialogue, due to status or posts which can contain a maximum of 140 characters. Facebook was started at the beginning of 2004. This web page, available to everyone, is owned and managed by the company with the same name (Facebook, Inc.). It was founded by Mark Zuckerberg while he was a student at Harvard University. Initially, the membership on the page was only allowed to Harvard students, but later it was accessible to the students from colleges which are members of the “Ivy League”. After a while, all college and high school students were granted access, and eventually, all people over 13 could become members of Facebook.

Twitter is a social network designed for micro-blogging, i.e. it is intended for sending (and reading) short messages, called tweets, by the network name. The sender can limit message delivery to his/her circle of friends only, or leave public access available to anyone (which is an assumed choice). Even though, it was used with a limit of 140 characters in each tweet until now, Twitter management announced that it was considering increasing the limit to 10,000 characters, which would change the way of communication on the social network. The so-called “Beyond 140” project, as it is called by Re / code, will allow users to tweet and tweets will continue to show standard 140 characters at the timeline, but when you click to expand the tweet, you will see a message that can contains up to 10,000 characters.[6] Twitter has lately been established socially as an important platform of public communication which is in progress in real time. Twitter was started as a platform for personal communication between different people, and as other social networks, it has frequently been used for communication between media, journalists, governments and politicians and citizens – electorate, and between companies and consumers and users.

Twitter and Facebook provide the fastest way of exchanging news through short messages, mostly with attachments such as photos or links. By reading twits on your phone or computer, you can find out current events in the world or the country and your city momentarily. When we refer to the use of Twitter in Serbia, you can find some information on Twitter first, as was the case with the earthquake in Kraljevo, fire in the National theatre, big floods in the country in spring 2014. Of course, there is some news you can follow randomly, or by hashtag, which is far easier and more usual.

Instagram is a photo-sharing app that can have some relevance to the market, especially with Facebook’s recent acquisition of the application. Having more than 27 million users, Instagram has a very active user base. Use Instagram for capturing event and office culture photos. Anybody can also leverage the application to run contests and scavenger hunts. The Instagram hashtag is a powerful feature to engage viewers. Hashtags act as keywords providing a way for people to find photos through a simple search. Hashtags are especially useful as you seek to establish your brand as an industry leader and get more followers. Implement hashtags that are unique to your brand and industry, as well as hashtags that are popular keywords.

Regardless of the type of social network, social networking is simply the amplification of emotional reactions to a topic in modern life. If there are no emotions – the communication will not be successful. The hashtag is an essential part of the emotion, because the emotion will not reach wider audience without it, or become the part of the popular contents online.[7]

During one of the last art related conferences in the USA, Marcus Romer pointed out that it has taken 38 years for the radio to reach 50 million users since its beginnings, television has had to wait for 13 years, and Facebook has achieved the same success in only two years. This proves the independence of the future of communication based on information technology, because the possibilities are infinite, and the speed of development is unknown.[8]

It is difficult not to notice, or feel in a way, the influence of social networks, especially when it comes to popular web pages/applications such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or even Wikipedia and You Tube. Since the end of 2006, social networks has started dictating the ways of using digital technologies worldwide.

Judging by the number of Internet users; Serbia is lined up with developed European countries, even though the social end economic situation cannot measure with the environment of those countries, nor can the development of information technology. Our country, with 52% of population using social networks, is the seventh in Europe, and the first in regional area. Iceland, Norway, Malta, Denmark, Sweden and Great Britain come before Serbia, and, for example, new technologies and online shopping are much more developed in these countries than in Serbia.

Every other Serbian citizen has a profile on some of the social networks, which is more than the average 40% in Europe. Men with 54% make the majority, compared to 46% of women, also a world average. The young aged 18 to 24 are the most frequent on Facebook, there are as much as 28% of those aged 25 to 34, and people older than 65 are least present, only 1,5% of them.

Picture 1: The purpose of use of the Internet according to people in Serbia[9]

 

THE USE OF HASHTAG IN COMMUNICATION

At the beginning of 21st century, the age of short text input came together with the blooming of mobile phones and social networks popularity. Short texts demanded abbreviations and shorter time to write messages, so the acronyms which became very popular in society today developed and they started being used outside social networks.

According to the text “The history of hashtag”[10], the term „hashtag” did not come up until year 2007 when Chris Mesinae (@FactoryJoe[11]) came up with the idea of using “the hash” as a symbol of metadata strategy.

Picture 2, chris-messina-first-twitter-hashtag, Tanja Tatomirovic

Picture 2. Chris Messina`s tweet with the first officially recognized hashtag

According to tweets researches, the first time a hashtag was used extensively as a way to categorize tweets. That was adopted by the public during the San Diego fire accident on October 23, 2007, when Nate Ritter used Twitter to spread the news about the fire and included the hashtag #sandiegofire.

Picture 3 San Diego fire, Tanja Tatomirovic

Picture 3. Nate Ritter`s tweet with the first hashtag to categorize tweets

The hashtag was not popular until Twitter promoted it in 2009. The hashtag was used before every word, from one tweet to another.

Hashtag became even more popular when Twitter added the Trending Topics option, where users can see popular hashtags used worldwide. When Instagram, which now has more than 200 million users and is one of the most frequently used applications for photo exchange, appeared in 2010, tha hashtag enabled people worldwide to share photos and connect to other users of the same interests.

With almost no limitations, the hashtags make users’ interaction easier. All you need is to put the symbol “#” in front of the word, and when you look for that precise word, all relating information and activities will be shown. This way, the hashtag becomes a certain “hub” (signifying the centre of an activity, topic or interest[12]) for an infinite number of topics around the world, thus enabling the user not only to follow the topic of interest but also to build it up by sharing familiar information and give contribution to information exchange. This way, the user simultaneously participates in setting trends related to films, music, politics or other areas, not necessarily events from modern life, but also those from the past.

The trend has been set with Throwback Thursday[13] hashtag. The origin of the term is unknown and almost impossible to find, and people might have used it before. This is how hashtag developed into a popular culture phenomenon simply and quickly.

Throwback Thursday signifies posting photos from the past, taken decades, years or months ago. #TBT on Twitter is a symbol related to any contents connected to the past, whether it is music, film, technological development or other topics. This confirms the fact that hashtag is not only a phenomenon related to modern trends exclusively, but it also enables finding and following trends which used to be popular long before it appeared. This represents a special opportunity to make people remember and find out about other values by means of social networks, which are the most available, most massive channel of communication of the 21st century with the fastest penetration recorded.

During the week, people post hashtags such as Man Crush Monday (#MCM) i Woman Crush Wednesday (#WCW). The days (Monday and Wednesday) give users an opportunity to post photos of people they admire, whether they are important for them personally or are simply celebrities. These hashtags are not as popular as #TBT, but they are certainly some kind of a trend judging by hundreds of millions of posts.

There is “Transformation Tuesday”, where users post two photos next to each other representing a kind of transformation or a makeover. For example, those who lost a lot of weight would post a photo before loss of weight next to their latest photo and hashtag it as #TransformationTuesday.

There is a Flashback Friday (#FBF) with the same concept as Throwback Thursday. Selfie Sunday is a trend of posting photos, selfies that users took, and so on.

For example, hashtag #80 enables us to get back to the past, and instead of browsing the Internet and using different theme pages, we get a full review of the pop culture of the eighties in one place. In 30 days (24/11-24/12/2014) there were 45,278 statuses related to the topic on Twitter and analysed with Topsy service, most of which are related to music (Duran Duran, Bananarama), and then those related to slang, questions about art, memories of different popular games of the decade, and so on.

 

Popularization of hashtag and how international celebrities influence the acceptance of the new communication trend and further development

The course of communication theory in two steps (also known as Model of multilevel course by Paul Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz) is a theory based on a study from 1940 on a social influence which states that media effects are indirectly established by a leader personally influencing the opinion. Most people gain variety of information second hand under the influence of media and leaders who create public opinion, and this can explain the progress of a simple “#” symbol into a popular culture phenomenon.

Even though this theory is directly connected to spreading ideas, it can also be applied to trend spreading. Trends otherwise appear in mass media, but when a celebrity or someone people look up to start following them, they become popular with the general population. Just as any other trend in our society, it was popularized by celebrities, and the others simply started following it.

In year 2010, for example, a reality show star Kim Kardashian started a series of Throwback Thursday photos on Twitter and Instagram. She was one of the first celebrities to use weekly hashtags, and people started following her, as in other things she does. Until last year, it was one of the most popular hashtags on Instagram.

So far, more than 293 million photos on Instagram have been hashtagged as #TBT and more than 45 million as #throwbackthursday, according to Instagram data. The fact that a reality show star is meritorious for the popularity of the trend and that her posts on Twitter are followed by more than 28 million people undoubtedly shows the way society works. Things we do, wear, watch, the music we listen to are largely influenced by celebrities and other well-known people on social networks.

Hashtag, selfie (a photo we take of ourselves) and similar terms are words added to a group of 150 new words and definitions in Merriam – Webster Collegiate dictionary in 2014 which is now available in printed and online form at Merriam-Webster.com. These recently accepted terms show the growing influence technology has on people’s behaviour, especially those connecting on social networks, which they used to do in direct communication before (live).

In time, hashtag evolved into a form that enables humour, black humour, puns or even poetry. At the same time, Twitter corporation recognized the power of hashtag, which has now become a part of a design, slang and advertising slogans on this social network.

Hashtag has also been adopted outside Twitter, which proves that it has really become a popular culture phenomenon, spreading to other communication platforms. The famous USA rap singer Kanye West popularized the phrase “hashtag rap” a few years ago when he was describing the hip-hop rhyme pattern older than Twitter, which reminds of a way hashtag compresses comparisons.

Hashtag in music does seem similar to chorus, and it also has something in common with the brackets, since it gives additional explanation or qualifies whichever phrase it ends.

Today, hashtag characters are everywhere. They are seen in commercials, on T-shirts, websites, in TV programmes, and even in the news.

Hashtags are important for modern popular cultures because they are used so widely that they came over the generation gap, and some companies started trying them and using them a few years ago.

First of all hashtags are important for popular culture today because they are so widely used. In only a few years’ time, they managed to transform from a completely new concept into a world social trend used by millions of people. The use has not been limited to social networks such as Facebook, Instagram or Twitter, since hashtags are now present in all media types.

There is a video[14] in which USA stars Justin Timberlake and Jimmy Fallon are mocking hashtags, and the video shows how much they are really used in today’s culture. The hashtags are widely used in lots of different contexts of everyday life and speech, and their value as phenomenon cannot simply be ignored by the society.

 

SURVEY AND STATISTICS: Popular Serbian Hashtags and the meaning of Hashtag to vivid users in Serbia

Digital communication is something that began as fun and became a part of popular culture of contemporary society and part of the usual course of business. Communication on digital channels, without additional effort or integrated campaigns and broader strategy, enables interaction, but not necessarily the audience feedback of equal intense, who may click on the content, or expand the information, but may not buy the product or get to the event only because the content communicated on the social network is likeable and appealing as presented on the social network or another digital channel of communication. Social networking is, simply, the amplification of emotional reactions towards the institution or company that handles the communication with the audience on these networks. If there is no emotion, there is no success in communication, even if you use the hashtag you organise your communication or make it more available.[15]

According to a survey of a few people who are active on social networks, first of all those who have more than five thousand followers on Twitter (number of followers on 01/17/2016, provided by Tvitni.me analytics service) and at the same time deal with social networks in their daily work or provide advertising services or relationships with so-called “online community” to its customers, the answers to a question “What is a hashtag to you?” were similar, which confirms the fact that hashtag has become a tool for choosing or creating information:

  • Social media user 1, number of followers 6.315: „HASHTAG is a place where journalists and editors make sure they have not missed anything interesting on a Line[16] and where they can, by a simple click, get information which will turn up in headlines tomorrow!”
  • Social media user 2, number of followers 12.638: „HASHTAG is a way to avoid the so called information overload. The optimists say there is no such thing as information overload, only bad filters. HASHTAG is a filter, through which you follow things important to you. Here is an example: #ACTAtalks #kojesledeci #onokad.
  • Social media user 3, number of followers 11.293: “The unavoidable sign for searching closely related words which refer to Twitter communication of the people in niche.”
  • Social media user 4, number of Twitter followers 14.955: „HASHTAG is a combination of ASCII characters which follow the hash (#) without space and punctuation, our letters and so on. They are used to “filter” the contents on Twitter depending on whether you want to see it or not. Searching by hashtag you can see the contents of all messages containing the hashtag or you can add the tag into the filter and not be able to see in your timeline anything containing the hashtag. In general, there are two types of hashtags, one is a general hashtag, you can tag a link, or if you want to mark a photo you can put (#pic), or if it is funny (#lol), or sexual (#nsfw). On the other hand, there are “unique” (if possible) hashtags which are used to follow only one topic. For example, #utisak is related to a TV show “Utisak nedelje” (The Impression of the week), and not to an impression of yours…“
  • Social media user 5, number of Twitter followers 10.431: „I like hashtags, because when I get lost on Twitter, they help me find where it all started and what people talk about. If I do not like the topic, I can choose not to follow it. Hashatgs complete the twits, and I like that.”
  • Social media user 6, number of followers: 9.183: „HASHTAG is an easy way to group all tweets related to a topic that interests you.”
  • Social media user 7, number of Twitter followers 8.170: „An easy way for marking and finding topics on Twitter, as well as an excellent advertising tool for online promotions.“

 

As one of the interviewed people mentioned, a hashtag can be general, and it can also refer to a concrete topic spoken of online. This is the case with a hashtag „utisak“ (influence) which refers to a certain Serbian TV show. For the chosen 30 days (from 08/01 to 08/02/2015) the hashtag „utisak“ was repeated for 2,298 times on Twitter.

Picture 4. Monthly statistics for hashtag utisak, Tanja Tatomirovic

Picture 4. Monthly statistics for hashtag #utisak (Topsy.com), from 08/01 to 08/02/2015

This show was during its broadcast as popular on Twitter as it was on TV, but the filtration by hashtag made it possible for users of the social network to follow the show, and without limitations make comments, ask questions and often get answers in the TV show. This example shows the phenomenon of hashtag in communication today and in popular culture, where a TV show gains another parallel life on an online channel, which was not generated by the author of the show herself, but by the audience.

Besides media, journalists or public events, hashtag is also used in private statuses on Twitter – tweets. There are some popular hashtags in Serbian, chosen as the most popular based on the analytical service Tvitni.me in February 2015, which are used to communicate users’ moods or attitudes:

  • #onokad (#likewhenyou) is one of the most frequent hashtags in Serbia, as a prefix to sentences which state an opinion, mood, attitude or emotion;
  • #mrzimzimu (I hate winter) is one of the hashtags where people state their feelings toward the season, and it can also be related to clothes, road safety, weather forecast or anything related to a negative attitude to winter conditions. Similar hashtags are #uinatzimi (in spite of winter) or #uinatsnegu (in spite of snow) and so on, and by using them, groups of like-minded people are formed, or people with the same attitude to winter, or so;

In Serbia, in social networks communication the hashtag #uticaj (influence) is also popular, and in the beginning it only related to “marking” the users of Twitter with a large number of followers. Today it is being used as a mark for an achieved goal which implicates wide consequences in the community, regardless of the area it refers to.

The audience in Serbia is still immature, although the social networks, the blogs and all that “digital scene” are not of short life and is not new to Serbian market. However, the digital communication and the communication in general, should not be “playing it safe” and go only for the “safe options” – the well-known questions and answers. It must evolve and capitalize on the opportunities of development of the social networks in order to reach more information about the customers and their preferences, to learn more from them, to have them surprised, shocked, inspiring them or simply leading them to the goal. Such communication management on the social media means not only to connect, but also to bring the audience to a new level of engagement, which is based on the direct dialogue and transparent relationship. Serbian digital users cannot, although we still do, use the digital communication capabilities as the mere “digital bulletin boards” and for the simple expression of undefined emotions through the use of the “like”, the “share” or the “sticker” or even “hashtag”. [17]

 

CONCLUSION

Today, the symbol “#” does not only represent a part of the social network language, but it is also a part of everything we consume. Actually, the symbol even changes the way the society writes and behaves, because grammatically correct forms are no longer necessary. Everything boils down to a possibility to attract as much audience as possible by using the shortened texts.

According to research so far that Kissmetric service[18] announced, shorter messages are 25% more interactive. Therefore, in order to send and receive messages, we do not need to use whole sentences, but only images and hashtag symbols, which confirms the visual effect domination. Nowadays even the TV channels use hashtag characters to attract more viewers, widen the audience and distribute information much faster. According to research results on this analytical website, pictures get 53% more likes and 84% more clicks than exclusively text messages, so the media which are consumed fast have the advantage, and that is an inevitable trend when it comes to brand development and advertising campaigns.

Hashtags are interesting cultural meme“, says Jonah Berger, the author of the book “Contagious: Why Things Catch On” and a marketing professor at the University of Pensilvania. They started as useful and applicable, but evolved so much that now they represent cultural phenomenon and give you the impression of being well-informed. Therefore, this is what we do: now we hashtag everything.”

Regardless of the type of social network, social networking is simply the amplification of emotional reactions to a topic in modern life. If there are no emotions – the communication will not be successful. The hashtag is an essential part of the emotion, because the emotion will not reach wider audience without it, or become the part of the popular contents online.

Speed and simplicity are implemented in the new „hashtag culture”. Hashtag has developed from a simple social communication tool into a popular cultural phenomenon in a very short period of time.

This trend is only a different way of using the Internet and just another possibility for posting the aimed personal content. It is possible that one day a specific obsession for hashtag as such will disappear, but until then it will continue to grow incredibly fast.

The things that made hashtag the essential part of communication with audience in modern society are number of hashtags, number of social network users, an easy possibility to create contents that the whole world can access, mobile communication (with 80% of users of Twitter on mobile platforms18), TV shows and advertising campaigns, which also made it even more popular. This proves that a thing which started as entertainment became a part of popular culture of the modern society.

 *******

 

[1] Twitter, About the company – https://about.Twitter.com/company

[2] Marketing Land – http://marketingland.com

[3] Topsy: www.topsy.com, online service that searched and analysed data from Twitter, worked until December 2015, now integrated to Apple search services

[4] Tvitni.me: www.tvitni.me, online Twitter analytic service, created in Serbia

[5] Twitter: www.twitter.com, social network

[6] Perlberg S., (2016), CMO Today: Twitter Weighs 10,000-Character Tweets, The wall Street Journal, http://www.wsj.com/articles/cmo-today-twitter-weighs-10-000-character-tweets-1452084097

[7] Tatomirovic T., (2015), Ako nema emocije, nema ni uspeha u komunikaciji, Marketing mreža, http://marketingmreza.rs/ukoliko-nema-emocije-nema-ni-uspeha-u-komunikaciji/ (If there is no emotion, there is no success in communication! – Marketing Network Portal)

[8] Tatomirović T., (2008), Virtuelno komuniciranje u budućnosti: upotreba i zloupotreba, CM Časopis za upravljanje komuniciranjem, 7/2008, 103-112. (Virtual communication in future: use and misuse, CM Magazine for communication management)

[9] The use of informational and communicational technologies in the Republic of Serbia 2014, Republican Bureau of Statistics, http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/repository/documents/00/01/50/47/ICT2014s.pdf

[10] Twitter: www.twitter.about.com

[11] Names with „@“ prefix are names and/or nicknames of the users of Twitter

[12] The Free Dictionary, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/hub

[13] Knibbs K. (2015), Digital trends, http://www.digitaltrends.com/users/kateknibbs/

[14] Justin Timberlake`s and Jimmy Fallon`s video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=57dzaMaouXA

[15] Tatomirovic T., Jugoslovensko dramsko pozorište na društvenim mrežama, Teatron – časopis za pozorišnu umetnost, 172-173/2015, 83-93,

[16] Line – slang, signifies the course of communication on Twitter

[17] Tatomirovic T., (2015), „Ako nema emocije, nema ni uspeha u komunikaciji“, Marketing mreža, http://marketingmreza.rs/ukoliko-nema-emocije-nema-ni-uspeha-u-komunikaciji  (“If there is no emotion, there is no success in communication!” – Marketing Network)

[18] Kissmetrics, social media analytic service: www.Kissmetrics.com

 

LITERATURE

  • Arts Council England, Digital audiences: Engagement with arts and culture online, 2010.
  • Berger J., Contagious: Why Things Catch On, Simon & Schuster, 2013.
  • Thomas, L.,Twitter at the office social eyes, Journal of Web Librarianship, 2010.
  • Tatomirović T., Virtuelno komuniciranje u budućnosti: upotreba i zloupotreba, CM Časopis za upravljanje komuniciranjem, 7/2008, 103-112, Protokol Novi Sad – Fakultet političkih nauka Beograd, 2008.
  • Tatomirovic T., Ako nema emocije, nema ni uspeha u komunikaciji, Marketing mreža, http://marketingmreza.rs/ukoliko-nema-emocije-nema-ni-uspeha-u-komunikaciji/ (If there is no emotion, there is no success in communication! – Marketing Network Portal), 2015.
  • Tatomirovic T., Jugoslovensko dramsko pozorište na društvenim mrežama, Teatron – časopis za pozorišnu umetnost, 172-173/2015, 83-93, Muzej pozorišne umetnosti Beograd, 2015.
  • Upotreba informaciono-komunikacionih tehnologija u Republici Srbiji, Republički zavod za statistiku, 2014. http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/repository/documents/00/01/50/47/ICT2014s.pdf
  • Zappavigna M., Discourse of Twitter and Social Media: How We Use Language to Create Affiliation on the Web – Continuum Discourse, Continuum Publishing Corporation, 2012.

Additional web locations:

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“Yugoslav Drama Theatre on Social Networks” (Teatron)

in SOME NEWS
“Novi participatorni mediji kao što su društvene mreže imaju tendenciju da napreduju u elaborativne, organizovane sisteme za izražavanje. Pozorišta imaju potencijal da prođu sličnu (r)evoluciju kao i web, da transformišu statični sadržaj u dinamične platforme za sakupljanje i podelu informacija. U nestabilnim uslovima, u nedostatku sistematske kulturne politike i sistema funkcionisanja umetničkih institucija u uravnoteženom trendu, javlja se prirodna potreba za derivatom menadžmenta u kulturi. U najgorim društveno-ekonomskim epohama i lošim ekonomskim prilikama u kakvim se Srbija nalazi u ovom trenutku, kultura se bazira na snalaženju, a „suve ideje“ donose najbolje kreativne rezultate.
Većina organizacija izvođačkih umetnosti suočava se sa finansijskim izazovima. Blagajna igra značajnu ulogu u finansiranju tako da je prodaja karata za nastupe uživo glavni prioritet. Postoji malo novca koji ostaje za eksperimentisanje sa digitalnim medijima. Tradicionalisti i inovatori imaju suprotne stavove o tome koliko brzo pozorišni svet treba da žuri u novi digitalni svet. Dodatno, tradicionalisti s pravom razmatraju njegovu isplativost, te konkretnu akciju, nasuprot pukoj interakciji sa publikom koja ne utiče na trenutnu finansijsku korist ustanove, već na njen imidž u javnosti, te podršku strategiji na duže staze, koja je, u turbulentnim društveno-ekonomskim okolnostima kakve su aktuelne u Srbiji, veoma diskutabilna korist.”
Rad Tanje Tatomirović “Jugoslovensko dramsko pozorište na društvenim mrežama”, objavljen u časopisu “Teatron“, istražuje uticaj komunikacije na društvenim mrežama u realnom životu potrošača – posetilaca pozorišta.
Beograd, Decembar 2015/Januar 2016 – srpski jezik
Tanja Tatomirovic`s “Yugoslav Drama Theatre on Social Networks”, published in “Teatron – časopis za pozorišnu umetnost” is researching the impact of communication on social networks in “real consumers` life.“
Belgrade, December 2015/January 2016 – Serbian language
teatron snapshot

Roman o ljubavnom trouglu koji istražuje granice ljubavi i beskonačnost interneta

in SOME NEWS

U izdanju Lagune, 12.9.2014. godine u knjižarama se pojavio “PR”, roman Aleksandra Ilića koji sam imala čast i zadovoljstvo da pročitam pre drugih i da za njega napišem: „Osim što vas lako natera da instalirate sve aplikacije koje u knjizi pominje i da se upitate odakle su vam to poznati svi ovi ljudi, Ilić objašnjava, bez pardona, šta se krije iza slike stvarnosti koju kreira domaća PR scena. Njegova priča ogolila je bombastične nazive funkcija, iskrivljeni rečnik, isfabrikovane menadžere, lažni moral i nametnutu potrebu da svi izgledamo isto i ponašamo se isto. Kada pročitate ‘PR’ pročitali ste nas sve.“

Više o romanu možete pročitati OVDE

Tanja Tatomirović: Danas se svako predstavlja kao “PR” | Intervju

in MY WORK

Tanja Tatomirović – Komunikolog
Beograd: 04.12.2012.

…diplomirani politikolog i svršeni postdiplomac komunikologije na Fakultetu političkih nauka u Beogradu, bavi se medijima i odnosima s javnošću više od petnaest godina… Polovinom devedesetih počela je da se bavi novinarstvom („Demokratija“, „Blic“), a zatim je nastavila karijeru kao samostalni PR konsultant. Zahvaljujući, između ostalog, njenom radu i formiranju mreže portparola regionalnih trgovinskih sudova u saradnji sa USAID projektom CCASA, Viši trgovinski sud dobio je 2007. godine nagradu povodom „Međunarodnog dana prava javnosti da zna“ za poseban doprinos ka uspostavljanju pozitivne prakse u sprovođenju Zakona o slobodnom pristupu informacijama od javnog značaja. Posebne preporuke Tanja je tada dobila i od poverenika Rodoljuba Šabića.

ZaJavnost.info: Te davne 2000. godine od britanske Vlade ste dobii stipendiju za postdiplomske studije na Univerzitetu u Notingemu, Velika Britanija, ali ste ostali u Srbiji. Šta je po Vama bilo presudno za takvu oduku koju mnogi ne bi propustili?

Ah, Notingem, Šervud i Robin Hud, a ja sada pričam sa vama, ovde…!? 🙂
Te godine je samo nas nekoliko dobilo tu mogućnost. Ako vam kažem da su svi bili šokirani mojom odlukom da odbijem stipendiju britanske vlade za postdiplomske studije, a da sam ja imala 26, 27 godina i bila tek dve godine (u sada već davno bivšem) braku, biće vam jasno da su me vodile emocije, a ne razum. Nisam ponosna na tu svoju odluku i smatram je jednom od većih propusta u životu. No, ponosna sam na samu šansu koju mi je ukazana i žao mi je što Univerzitet u Notingemu nije bio moj tadašnji izbor. Ipak, da je bilo tako, verovatno danas vi i ja ne bismo pričali… živela bih ko zna gde.

ZaJavnost.info: Više od 15 godina ste u medijima i odnosima sa javnošću. Koja su po Vama najbitnije stvari na koje se treba obratiti pažnja ukoliko iz novinarskih voda predjete u PR sektor?

Sjajna je stvar za PR stručnjaka ako je bar par meseci proveo radeći u nekoj redakciji. Tada uspeva da ostvari korektne odnose sa novinarima, jer zna šta je dobro, šta nije, šta može i šta ne može. Ne može dobar PR da bude neko ko nije ušao ni u jednu redakciju nikada u životu. Iako su te dve profesije slične, ne treba ih poistovećivati. Svako radi svoj posao i nema nikakvih problema ako postoji obostrano razumevanje i saradnja. Nije uvek tako, ali to ne zavisi od posla, to zavisi od čoveka – njegove širine, fleksibilnosti, korektnosti i obrazovanja.

ZaJavnost.info: PR kao poziv je u ekspanziji kod nas. Koliko je vremena potrebno za dobrog i uvaženog PR-a u Srbiji?

Nisam sigurna da li je ta ekspanzija dobra ili ne. Razgovaralo se na “PRilici” – konferenciji Društva Srbije za odnose s javnošću o obrazovanju i licenciranju ljudi koji se bave ovim poslom… Danas se svako predstavlja kao “PR”, a da biste to zaista postali morate imati odgovarajuće obrazovanje i urođeni talenat, kao i za mnoga druga zanimanja. Naravno, dešava se i da je dovoljno da budete tatina ćerka, član neke političke partije, pa da postanete “PR”… Ali, ako možete da postanete ministar bez mnogo kvaliteta, zašto ne biste postali i PR? Nadam se da će Društvo Srbije za odnose s javnošću, ako ne uvede licenciranje, postaviti bar neke više standarde, kako bismo sačuvali integritet struke.

ZaJavnost.info: Juna 2008. godine ste završili Londonsku školu za odnose sa javnošću, a kod Diane Cromer specijalnu obuku za odnose sa javnošću u kriznim situacijama. Šta je na Vas ostavilo najveći utisak nakon ovih obuka?

Londonsku školu za odnose s javnošću završila sam kada sam već imala iskustvo koje sam stekla kao novinar, iskustvo u trgovinskom pravosuđu, iskustvo u pančevačkoj “Petrohemiji”. Kao i mnogi drugi kursevi i stručna usavršavanja koje sam prošla i prolazim i dalje, i ta škola mi je pomogla da sistematizujem neke delove znanja iz ove oblasti. Najvrednije do sada, iako najmanje praktične, bile su moje postdiplomske studije komunikologije na Fakultetu političkih nauka u Beogradu.

ZaJavnost.info: Našli ste se na listi EURO 50 u izdanju internacionalnog “Digital TV Europe” magazina kao jedna od 50 najvažnijih ličnosti u oblasti digitalne televizije. Da li Vam je ovo priznanje olakšalo ili pomoglo u nastavku karijere?

Jedno takvo priznanje je zaista velika stvar. Naći se rame uz rame sa još 49 menadžera velikih broadband kompanija iz čitave Evrope (HBO, Eutelsat, Fox, Virgin media,…) priznanje je i čast prvenstveno za mene lično, ali i za celu struku u Srbiji. Ne znam da li mi je pomoglo,…

ZaJavnost.info: Koje su po Vama prednosti a koje mane bavljenja odnosima sa javnošću u Srbiji?

Degradacija struke! Ponekad je teško reći “Ja sam PR!”, jer se tim poslom bave i oni koji su pročitali samo knjigu tipa “Kako postati PR za 24 sata” ili ni to. Naravno da se kvalitet prepoznaje i izdvaja, ali vam treba dodatna snaga i za kojekakve borbe, umesto da je utrošite na neke lepše stvari. Smeta mi i to što mnogo kolega želi baš sve da unovči. Jasno je da je situacija teška, ali ne može se sve naplatiti… Gde je ona dobra volja i želja da se nešto uradi samo radi sopstvenog i/ili tuđeg zadovoljstva i sreće?

ZaJavnost.info: Povremeno držite i predavanja na temu odnosa sa medijima. Šta je ono na šta se na svakom predavanju trudite da prenesete slušaocima, a što je krucijalno za tu temu?

Ja sam veliki praktičar. Trudim se da prenesem svoja najbolja, ali i najgora iskustva. Uvek potenciram etiku, transparentnost i gajenje dobrih odnosa sa novinarima. Mnogo stvari mora da nauči jedan dobar PR, ne samo kako će sarađivati sa medijima. Nije jednostavno baviti se našim poslom – u svakom trenutku morate da budete bar korak ispred svih kada je informisanost u pitanju. U poslednje vreme držim obuke u oblasti društvenih mreža. To volim i potenciram mnogo praktične obuke, umesto suve teorije kojoj tu nije mesto. Prezrela sam Power Point.

ZaJavnost.info: Aprila 2011. godine objavili ste knjigu “Musolinijev mikrofon”, koja je prvenac izdavačke delatnosti Društva Srbije za odnose s javnošću. Kako ste zadovoljni kritikom na knjigu?

“Musolinijev mikrofon” je nevelika knjiga u kojoj je obrađena tema fašističkog radija za vreme Dučea. Tema nije nikada do sada obrađivana na srpskom, pa joj je to bila i odskočna daska. Kritike su bile sjajne, a najveće priznanje je to što je knjiga uvršćena na spisak dodatne literature na jednom od predmeta na studijama istorije na Univerzitetu u Beogradu. Ja sam zadovoljna… Počela sam da radim i na drugoj verziji knjige, koja će se više baviti onim “iza kulisa” – preljubama, špijunažom, izdajama i emocijama. To će biti prava stvar, mi Srbi volimo afere.

ZaJavnost.info: Veoma ste aktivni na društvenim mrežama. Koliko su one danas bitne i kako im predvidjate budućnost?

Aktivna sam jer ih volim – dobre su za posao, spajaju ljude i pomoću njih sam, ovako radoznala, saznala i saznajem mnogo toga, Na kraju, mnogo divnih ljudi sam upoznala zahvaljujući Twitteru, pre svega. Brine me samo to što ih mnoge kolege precenjuju. Da, bitne su. Da, jeftin su kanal komunikacije. Ne, neće se više od 10% preneti u real-life. Na trejler filma na YouTubeu klikne 150.000 ljudi, a samo 15.000 ode u bioskop. Isto tako 20.000 ljudi daje podršku organizaciji nekog protesta, a na protest ih ode samo 200 ili ni toliko… Dobre su za razmenu informacija, ali nisu pokretač – ne u Srbiji. Mi smo vazda različiti. Smatram da smo ih u poslu precenili, ali treba biti prisutan. Umeju da budu zabavne, emotivne. Neka se i samo 10% emocija i smeha prenese u naše živote i biće dobro.

ZaJavnost.info: Vaš životni moto je?

”Uvek može bolje!” 🙂
Teks preuzet sa info-portala ZaJavnost.Info

MOGUĆNOSTI ZA NAPREDOVANJE UZ POMOĆ DRUŠTVENIH MREŽA

in MY WORK

Nemojte alate sa društvenih mreža koristiti samo kao zabavu ili samo kao rešenje u kriznim situacijama. Koristite Facebook, Linkedln, Twitter i Google + proaktivno, da izgradite poslovne odnose i poboljšate mogućnosti za profesionalno napredovanje.

Uspešno umrežavanje podrazumeva nekoliko stvari. Pre svega povezanost sa pravim ljudima kroz prave kanale komunikacije, i aktivnost u pravim zajednicama uz pravi sadržaj. Deluje komplikovano? Pa, imenovali smo samo nekoliko aktivnosti koje su važne za svakog ko planira da proširi posao ili svoju profesionalnu karijeru učvrsti online. Ako se osećate zbunjeno, pročitajte sledeće navode kako biste saznali više o prednostima korišćenja više različitih društvenih mreža.

Budite „cela“ osoba na Tviteru

Verovatno ste čuli da je Tviter otovrena platforma za društveno umrežavanje. „Otvorena“ znači da se možete povezati i biti povezani sa bilo kim, bez obzira na vaše prethodne veze. Ako pratite ljude iz svoje ciljne grupe, vi ste najverovatnije tu kako bi se povezali sa onima koji bi mogli postati vaši poslovni partneri ili sa budućim klijentima.
„Otvoren“ takođe znači da se ne treba bojati tvitovanja o stvarima iz ličnog života. Umesto toga, tvitujte tako da dozvolite ljudima da vas upoznaju kao stvarnu osobu. Kako bi pomogli ljudima da razumeju vaša interesovanja i profesiju, obratite dodatnu pažnju na ispunjavanje biografije. Omogućava vam da se izrazite u 160 karaktera, budite sigurni da ste ih iskoristili! Ako imate blog, dodajte link u biografiju i redovno tvitujte linkove do vaših objava na blogu.

Nemojte se previše opterećivati građenjem baze pratilaca na Tviteru. Mnogo važnije od broja sledbenika je kako i koliko su angažovani. Između ostalog, to znači i da obraćaju pažnju na konverzaciju i na pitanja koja postavljate na Tviteru. Više o Tviter angažovanosti pročitajte ovde.

Ubacite se u Google + krugove

Dok vam Tviter daje međunarodni „domet“ bez mnogo mogućnosti da ga kontrolišete, Google+ dolazi sa krugovima, koji vam umnogome olakšavaju smanjujući „šum“. G+ ne samo da vam dozvoljava da kreirate krugove koji odgovaraju vašim potrebama, već vam dozvoljava i da ciljano birate publiku koja verovatno ima interesovanja za vaš sadržaj. Na ovaj način vi ste savršeno pozicionirani da angažujete svoje pratioce i gradite svoj lični kredibilitet. Zahvaljujući krugovima mnogi korisnici su zapravo u mogućnosti da nađu najrelevantnije podatke samo na G+. Dakle, ako ste već aktivni na G+, samo nastavite!

Budite profesionalac na LinkedIn

LinkedIn  je društvena mreža koju najviše koristite za svoj profesionalni život. To je vaš online CV i mesto gde se možete povezati sa vašim oblastima porfesionalnog interesovanja, potencijalnim ili sadašnjim klijntima, mogućim poslodavcima. Zato vaš LinkedIn profil mora biti dobro vođen, i mora sadržati važne prekretnice u vašem obrazovanju i karijeri.
Ako aktivno tražite posao, obratite pažnju da ubacite i vaše veštine i stručnost, i dodate rečenicu koja će vas predstaviti, npr. „Finansijski stručnjak sa iskustvom traži poslovnu priliku“. Ako ste u radnom odnosu trebalo bi da nastupite strateški i da se opredelite za nešto suptilnije alternative. To bi značilo da možete da naglasite da ste zainteresovani za investicije, pravo, marketing, ili šta je već vaša oblast. Vodite računa da ne navedete previše oblasti kako ne bi izgledalo da ste očajni.

Kako da izgradite više veza

Ako ste iskusni profesionalac voljan da posavetuje ili ste zainteresovani da se upoznate sa novim ljudima, dozvolite da vaša e-mail adresa bude vidljiva. Nema svako Premium LinkedIn nalog, a omogućavanjem vidljivosti vaših kontakt podataka stavljate do znanja da ste pristupačni, što vam može doneti interesantne i korisne veze. U ovom slučaju, želećete možda radije da prikažete svoj lični mail. Kada vas neko kontaktira na privatni mail možete odlučiti da li ćete odgovoriti. S druge strane, pošta koju primite na poslovnu mail adresu ne bi trebalo da ostane bez odgovora.

Da li LinkedIn grupe funkcionišu?

Mnogi profesionalci u potrazi za novim mogućnostima ulaze u više grupa iz njihovih oblasti poslovnog interesovanja. Nije neuobičajeno da ljudi završe u 30-40 grupa u nadi da će ih neko primetiti. U stvarnosti, ove grupe ne funkcionišu. Većina će vam reći da nikada nisu dobili poslovnu ponudu oslanjajući se isključivo na ovaj kanal.

Razmišljajte kao headhunter

Dve važne stvari imajte na umu ako želite da vas kontaktira lovac na talente (headhunter): lokaciju i ime poslodavca. Ako tražite posao u Bogradu, a mesto boravka vam je u Sarajevu nemate gotovo nikakve šanse da vam pridje skaut iz Beograda. Za ove ljude je važno da ste zaista u gradu u kom želite da nastavite svoju karijeru, u suprotnom to je samo gubljenje vremena. Takođe, oni su u potrazi za kandidatima koji su već radili za istu oblast/industriju.

Poslodavci se razlikuju u zavisnosti od industrije, ali kao opšte pravilo stoji da morate imati neko prethodno iskustvo sa već afirmisanom kompanijom.  Naravno, najvažniji preduslov da bi vas kontaktirao skaut je da imate do u piksel savršen LinkedIn profil. Savet: nemojte dodavati headhuntere u svoje kontakte! To vam uopšte nije potrebno. U redu je imati jednog ili dvoje u svojoj mreži, ali je suština da ako ispunjavate kriterijume za određeno radno mesto, oni će vas kontaktirati direktno. Pošto vaš LinkedIn profil pokazuje liste kontakata koje ste dodali, treba paziti na to da ćete, ukoliko dodate previše ljudi iz oblasti HR-a, izgledati previše očajno.

Kako da izvučete najviše iz svog Fejsbuk profila?

Ako želite da koristite Fejsbuk do njegovog punog potencijala, trebalo bi da donesete odluku kako ćete ga koristiti. Mnogi profesionalci odluče da Fejsbuk koriste isključivo iz ličnih razloga. Fejsbuk je drugačiji alat za komunikaciju od LinkedIna ili Google + i zato daje više prostora da se povežete sa svojim prijateljima i komunicirate opuštenije. Sadržaj vaših objava može dopuniti i vaš profesionalni život. Ako koristite Tviter možete odlučiti da neke tvitove priikažete i na Fejsbuku.

Međutim, Fejsbuk treba koristiti sa dodatnom pažnjom. Sve sporne fotografije ili objave treba podesiti tako da budu vidljivi samo odabranim prijateljima. Treba imati i svest o objavama u svakom trenutku, kako bi bili sigurni da nećete uvrediti druge ljude. Kao što radite i u svakodnevnom životu: budite iskreni i zanimljivi u komunikaciji i delite koliko i uzimate. Ako konkurišete za novi posao, imajte na umu da regruteri i potencijalni poslodavci mogu koristiti i vaš Fejsbuk profil kako bi vas proverili.

Želeli mi to da shvatimo ili ne, umrežavamo se kad god koristimo neku društvenu mrežu. Setite se da gotovo sve što objavite ostaje na Internetu zauvek, i zato bolje dva puta razmislite.
Prevod i adaptacija:
Tamara Gočmanac i Tanja Tatomirović
Izvor originala:
Socialbakers

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